Main Topic: Micro- and Nanosystems, Active Implants, Biosensors
Presentation title: TBA
Main Topic: Patient Safety
Presentation title: Skin injuries in interventional procedures: What the Medical Physicist needs to know
Medical Physics Department, Konstantopoulio General Hospital, Nea Ionia, Greece
Various Organizations such as the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), the International Atomic Energy Agency the European Commission, the Food and Drug Administration and others draw our attention to interventional Radiology (IR) procedures as high radiation dose techniques with elevated risk for various tissue effects. This is due to the use of either fast multi-detector CT (MDCT) scanners or highly sophisticated fluoroscopic equipment such as angiography machines to best localize the lesion or the treatment site. The machines are used to continuously monitor and record these procedures. The most important tissue injuries affect the skin and the eye lens. They usually appear within 7-14 days of exposure. They may be acute or chronic and a certain threshold is required. The radiation dose threshold can be reached either from a single IR technique or from cumulative radiation doses by successive IR procedures. Several papers reported skin injuries following IR the last 20-30 years, especially after percutaneous coronary interventions, neuroembolisations or other complex techniques. Possible effects include inflammation of skin, presenting as erythema or pain that may later transform into ulceration, atrophy, telangiectasia, sclerosis, discoloration and other effects. Cardiologists, angiosurgeons, interventional radiologists, gastroenterologists or other medical specialties performing these techniques are frequently unaware of the high radiation doses to which a patient's skin may be subjected, even with the use of modern, state of the art equipment. This paper will review current knowledge, techniques and possible regulatory requirements necessary to prevent radiological skin injuries from the medical physicist point of view. Practical advices will be given from the same perspective on how to avoid them by simple steps.
Main Topic: Biological Effects of Electromagnetic Fields
Presentation title: TBA
Jack A. Tuszynski
Main Topic: Image Processing
Presentation title: Challenges in quantitative medical image analysis
Department of Medical Imaging, Nuclear Medicine, University of Debrecen, Debrecen, Hungary
An ideal quantitative method should be reproducible (if repeated at a different time, using a different camera and software), with known reference range for the result which is preferably unified – that is, dependent on the fewest factors possible. Steps of the process include image acquisition, reconstruction, followed by arithmetic, physical and biological phases of processing, providing simple static measures, indices of changes, or parameters of model fitting.
Emission imaging (by gamma camera or PET) is inherently deteriorated by noise, attenuation, scatter, limited and position-dependent resolution, and physiological motion (heart beat and respiration). All these factors should be addressed to obtain the most accurate, precise and biologically meaningful results possible. We shall review the methods for, and limitations of SPECT and PET reconstruction with the embedded correction steps, and the principles how image quality may be measured and optimized.
Hybrid imaging and multimodality image processing, while offering the potential for improving our accuracy, may introduce additional sources of error, originating from misalignment, different circumstances, and propagating artifacts.
Take-home message of the review is that when utilizing sophisticated image processing algorithms, we should always be aware of the possible sources of error, and carefully validate the methods before introducing them to our clinical or research work.
Main Topic: Neuroengineering, Neural Systems
Presentation title: Neural implants for therapy and enhancement
Office of the Vice Chancellor, Coventry University, Coventry, United Kingdom
Starting with a quick discussion of Biohacking, implants connected into the brain can be employed both for therapeutic purposes and also for enhancement. Here a look is taken at present and future uses of cochlea implants, visual neuroprosthetics and deep brain stimulation. Also considered is the possibility of growing brains by culturing neurons and through a process of embodiment thereby learning about structures and possible treatments. Finally the BrainGate implant is investigated not only for therapeutic uses but also for the enhancement of human brain and nervous system functioning, in order to create new, improved, forms of communication and to extend the human nervous system via a network, thereby allowing for an individual’s brain and body to be in totally different places.
Main Topic: Accreditation and Certification
Presentation title: Certification of Clinical Medical Physicists: How to uphold the standard globally
Chief Executive Office, International Medical Physics Certification Board, Phoenix, United States
Spearheaded by IOMP and IUPESM since four decades ago, the language was finally placed in the International Labour Office’s list of occupations to define the occupation of Medical Physicist. It was a major milestone marked by IUPESM Past President Keith Boddy (1937-2010). The International Standard Classification of Occupations (ISCO-08) was finalized in 2008 before the publication of the IOMP Policy Statements in 2010. The subsequent monumental harmonizing task of IAEA has made it possible for the medical professionals to harness the highly sophisticated medical technologies in every part of the world with the help of medical physicists, whose job title did not exist in hospitals in many countries, let alone the job descriptions. The International Medical Physics Certification Board (IMPCB), in the middle of the historical development, had to emerge to help the movement in a credible way, by setting up a system to identify qualified medical physicists. The IOMP again was the driving force behind it. Soon after the incorporation of the organization, IOMP became the Principle Supporting Organization when the Memorandum of Understanding was signed during the World Congress 2016. Among the many objectives stated in the bylaws of IMPCB, the tasks of accreditation of national and regional certification boards and direct certification of individual medical physicists are most visible. In this presentation, the speaker will present the process and recent updates of the accreditation efforts, and the preliminary statistics of the examinations. The speaker will acknowledge the current developments in radiation medicine, and explore the challenges faced by medical physicists. With the goal of preparing the qualified medical physicists to face the future, the speaker will summarize with a list of actions for IMPCB to take in order to uphold the standard globally for the not too distant future.
Main Topic: Minimum Invasive Surgery, Robotics, Image Guided Therapies, Endoscopy
Presentation title: Medical Robotics – Successes, Challenges, and the Road Ahead
The Hamlyn Centre, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom
Surgical robotics has made big strides in the last decade in technological innovation and clinical translation, supporting our pursuit in precision medicine, personalised healthcare, and quality-of-life improvements. The successes of the first-generation clinical systems have inspired an ever-increasing number of platforms from both commercial and research organisations, resulting in smaller, safer, and smarter devices. This lecture will look back through the last 25 years at how surgical robotics has evolved to a major area of innovation and development. With improved safety, efficacy and reduced costs, robotic platforms will soon approach a tipping point, moving beyond early adopters to become part of the mainstream surgical practice. These platforms will also drive the future of precision surgery, with a greater focus on early intervention and quality of life after treatment. Issues related to regulatory, ethical, and legal considerations for increasing levels of autonomy will be discussed. The lecture will also illustrate how this relatively young yet rapidly expanding field may reshape the future of medicine, as well as the associated technical, commercial, and economic challenges that need to be overcome.
Main Topic: Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Presentation title: Quantitative imaging biomarkers using PET/MRI
Nuclear Medicine & Molecular Imaging, Geneva University Hospital, Geneva, Switzerland
PET has, since its inception, established itself as the imaging modality of choice for the in vivo quantitative assessment of molecular targets in a wide range of biochemical processes underlying tumour physiology. PET image quantification enables to ascertain a direct link between the time-varying activity concentration in organs/tissues and the fundamental parameters portraying the biological processes at the cellular level being assessed. However, the quantitative potential of PET may be affected by a number of factors related to physical effects, hardware and software system specifications, tracer kinetics, motion, scan protocol design and limitations in current image-derived PET metrics. Given the relatively large number of PET metrics reported in the literature, the selection of the best metric for fulfilling a specific task in a particular application is still a matter of debate. Quantitative PET has advanced elegantly during the last two decades and is now reaching the maturity required for clinical exploitation, particularly in oncology where it has the capability to open many avenues for clinical diagnosis, assessment of response to treatment and therapy planning. Therefore, the preservation and further enhancement of the quantitative features of PET imaging is crucial to ensure that its full clinical value is utilized in clinical oncology. The bulk of PET/MR research to date focused on the instrumentation and building MR-compatible PET detectors and readout technologies, the challenges of MRI-guided PET attenuation correction, partial volume correction and motion compensation, and also finding a niche or primary clinical use of PET/MRI. This talk reflects the tremendous increase in interest in quantitative molecular imaging using PET/MRI hybrid imaging in both clinical and research settings. Quantitative imaging biomarkers will help in charting personalized treatment plans for patients and also in exploring new therapeutic opportunities. Current and prospective future applications of quantitative molecular imaging using PET/MRI will be addressed.